Instructed Eucharist #1; Lent 1 2019
Lent Instructed Eucharist
Used During Sermon Time
Session 1: Opening to the Gospel
Upon Entering the Church
People have different forms of personal piety, your mileage may vary.
Upon entering the church, some may cross themselves as a recognition that they are entering a holy place: God the Father (the Mind of God), God the Son (the Word of God), God the Holy Spirit (the Spirit of God). Some may also genuflect as a gesture of respect for the presence of Christ (in this understanding, genuflection would only occur when the Blessed Sacrament is present [red light]).
Because this is a holy space, people are expected to maintain a quiet dignity.
The Entrance Rite (323-325; 355-357)
A type of entrance rite was formalized after Constantine.
A hymn, psalm, or anthem may be sung
Opening procession w/music was introduced by Pope Celestine (422-32).
It's how we get the vested ministers from There to Here.
Liturgical processions practically and symbolically gathers the people together at the altar. There are regular processions and solemn processions (used mainly on important feast days).
Procession is designed so the most important person/thing (crucifix/empty cross) goes first, and the least important person goes last (“whoever wishes to be great among you must be your servant” Matt. 20:26; “the Son of Man did not come to be served, but to serve” Matt. 20:28).
We may have forgotten that the last person (priest/bishop) is the servant of all.
In Lent, St. John's makes use of a silent procession at the 10:15 service to set the tone that this service and season is more penitential and subdued in nature from other times of the year.
As the cross passes, many people will bow as a sign of respect/deference.
This is the official beginning of the service.
There are three options:
#1 is Trinitarian in nature and has roots in the Eastern Church;
#2 is based in the Resurrection and taken from Easter day (in general) and Luke 24:34 (in particular);
#3 is penitential in nature and is drawn from Ps. 103:1-3 & Ps. 136's responses.
It is customary, but not mandatory, for people to make the sign of the cross during the opening acclamation as a sign of reverence and physical preparation as we enter holy space and begin our worship.
Penitential Rite and Decalogue (319, 317; 351, 350)
Has the same three opening Acclamations.
During Lent, I opt to begin the service here. I use the Exhortation on Lent 1 (discussed later), the Decalogue on Lent 2-4, and the Great Litany on Lent 5.
When using the Penitential Order, the Confession happens at the beginning of the service and is followed by the Gloria (not used in Lent), the Kyrie, or the Trisagion
Collect for Purity
This is omitted when using the Penitential Order.
On all other occasions it is mandatory after the opening acclamation in Rite 1 and optional in Rite 2.
It is based on Ps. 51 (David's psalm of penitence after the Bathsheba affair) and has been in the BCP since 1549.
Summary of the Law
Rite 1 allows for either the Ten Commandments to be said here or the Summary of the Law. It was added to the US BCP in 1789, and became optional in 1979. It is not used in Rite 2.
As I said, I typically use the Penitential Order in Lent, and the Decalogue on Lent 2-4 in both Rites.
What follows is either the Kyrie, Trisagion, or the Gloria.
The Kyrie has been in the BCP since 1549 (and in the service before that);
It has Eastern roots;
It can be said/sung in a 3, 6, or 9-fold style;
I use it during Lent.
The Trisagion also has Eastern roots;
It is new to the 1979 BCP;
It can be sung once or thrice;
I use it in Advent.
The Gloria has been used in morning services since the 4th Century;
It's use became customary in the 11th Century;
It is not used during Advent or Lent (due to those seasons' penitential nature);
It can be replaced by some other song of praise (we use Hymn 96 [Angels we have heard on high] during Christmas; 421 [All glory be to God on high] during Epiphany]; and parts of 400 [All creatures of our God and King] during Easter just to keep from getting bored).
Notice that the sequence is Kyrie, Trisagion, Gloria in Rite 1; and Gloria, Kyrie, Trisagion in Rite 2. This has to do with seeing Rite 1 as a more penitential service than Rite 2, and why Rite 1 is often used during Lent in many churches.
Collect of the Day
This is officially the first prayer of the service. It changes every week so that what is read and prayed is proper for the day (hence the term “Propers”).
It begins with the Salutation which is taken from Ruth 2:4.
It calls the people to attention and initiates the Liturgy of the Word.
Hypothetically the Collect focuses on the theme of the day, but not necessarily.
After the Collect, the people sit.
This concludes the Entrance Rite
The Lessons (325-326; 357-358)
As Christianity developed, it borrowed from what its earliest followers knew/experienced in synagogues.
Scriptural readings and commentary (next week).
One or two lessons, as appointed, are read before the Gospel.
Scriptural readings follow a set pattern, called the Lectionary.
Before 1979 (1928, 1892, 1798, 1662, 1559, 1552, 1549) H.E. had a single-year lectionary with two readings (NT and Gospel); that is, the same readings were read every year.
1979 BCP adopted a three-year lectionary for H.E. (Years A, B, & C) and included OT:
All Years begin on Advent 1;
Ignoring Advent & Christmas, take the number of the year (2019) and divide by 3. A remainder of 1 = Year A; remainder of 2 = Year B; remainder of 3 = Year C; then back into Advent and Christmas.
1994 GC authorized trial use of the Revised Common Lectionary.
Plan was to get mainline churches reading the same lessons every Sunday.
2006 GC directed that the RCL become the official lectionary of TEC on Advent 1 of 2007.
Liturgical Time (Advent, Christmas, Epiphany, Lent, Easter): Season shapes the Lessons.
Ordinary Time (Season after Pentecost): Lessons shape the Season.
RCL gives us a two-track system during Ordinary Time for the Old Testament:
Year A: Major narratives of Genesis/Exodus;
Year B: Davidic narrative and Wisdom literature;
Year C: Prophets (chronologically) with a focus on Jeremiah;
Each lesson has an appropriate Psalm
Lessons have been chosen that somehow tie to the Gospel reading for the day and can jump all over the place.
Psalms are chosen in the same way.
All Lessons are read in a semi-continuous format.
Year A: Romans, Philippians, 1 Thessalonians;
Year B: 2 Corinthians, Ephesians, James, Hebrews;
Year C: Galatians, Colossians, Hebrews, Philemon, 1&2 Timothy, 2 Thessalonians.
Before 1979, NT (remember, no OT lesson) reading was introduced by citing Chapter, Book, and Verse: ie, “The 15th Chapter of Romans, beginning at the 4th Verse.”
1979 changed the introduction to simply, “A Reading from Paul's Letter to the Romans.”
Before 1979, readings were ended, “Here ends (endeth) the Epistle.”
1979 added, “The Word of the Lord,” with the response, “Thanks be to God.”
Readings/Lessons can be ended either way.
1979 added a period of optional silence after each reading.
The appointed Psalm follows.
Referred to as the Gradual, because it was often read from the Gradus (steps).
This is liturgically the oldest placement of psalm usage.
Following each reading, a Psalm, hymn, or anthem may follow.
A hymn before the Gospel is traditionally known as the Sequence hymn because the notes of these hymns were of sequential nature.
Year A: Matthew;
Year B: Mark (with supplements from John);
Year C: Luke.
In many places it is customary to place the Gospel book on the Altar to signify its importance.
The announcement and conclusion of the Gospel have remained basically unchanged.
At the announcement of the Gospel, some people will make a small sign of the cross on their foreheads (God be in my mind), on their lips (God be in my mouth), and on their hearts (God be in my heart).
To give proper honor to the Gospel, the people stand during its reading.
Since the 4th Century, it has been the prerogative of the Deacon to proclaim the Gospel.
The Gospel is traditionally read from among the people.
At the conclusion of the Gospel, the Deacon or Priest returns the book to its place.
Note there is nothing between the Gospel and the Sermon.
Second or final two verses of a hymn or announcements are no longer allowed.
This is so there is no distraction between the proclamation of the Gospel and the Sermon.
This concludes Session 1. Next week: The Sermon to the Absolution.